G – Patterns of integration and transregional dynamics in and across empires
Colonial administration / Imperial governance of locals and foreigners
Saturday, 27 June - 11:00 – 13:00
- ThemeG – Patterns of integration and transregional dynamics in and across empires
- Evguenia Prusskaya (State Academic University for the Humanities)
- Matheus Serva Pereira (Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto de Ciências Sociais)
- Eleonora Poggio (Linnaeus University, Centre for Concurrences in Colonial and Postcolonial Studies)
- Shestova Tatiana (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Global Studies)
- Florian Wieser (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München)
Algerian inhabitants in the colonial governance: the case of early French Algeria
Algerian inhabitants in the colonial governance: the case of early French AlgeriaIn 1830 the French army invaded Algiers and demolished the rule of the Dey, who was sent out of the country together with his officials. Since that time a new page in history of both countries began, though in 1830 hardly anyone could imagine the future consequences of the French campaign. In the first years of the invasion and their rule the French sought for the support of the local population, which was highly diverse and had different attitudes towards the French. In my talk I’m going to examine the inclusion of different Algerian social and ethnic groups to the French administrative system in 1830s and the changing attitudes of the both sides towards each other.
Matheus Serva Pereira
The procedures to become an "assimilated": Vulnerability and African agency in the Portuguese colonial bureaucracy (Mozambique, 1917-1961)
The procedures to become an "assimilated": Vulnerability and African agency in the Portuguese colonial bureaucracy (Mozambique, 1917-1961)One important characteristic of European colonialism in Africa was the social and discursive processes and debates that involved the incorporation and differentiation of native African populations into the “civilized” world. The so called “indigenous politic” establish by the Portuguese on their African, produced especially to deal with the working force and how to explore their bodies, stipulated two categories, based on racist hierarchical interpretations, dividing the African populations between “indígenas” (“indigenous”) and “assimilados” (“assimilated”) or “equiparado ao europeu” (“similar to a European”). Established in Mozambique, in 1917, with the creation of the first bureaucratic procedure to request the “assimilado” stamp, and ended in 1961, during the context of African independence, with substantial changes in 1919, 1927, 1929, 1944 and 1954, this paper it is an initial analyses on how Africans deal with the Portuguese colonial strategies of domination. To obtain the “alvará de assimilado” (assimilation document) consequently escaping from some forms of explorations, such as the chibalo (forced labour), and gain a vulnerable kind of Portuguese citizenship, it was necessary face some bureaucratic procedures. African requests for these identification devices created in the context of Portuguese colonial policies that elaborated repressive-legislative apparatuses on the African populations from the institution of the requirement to request applications and identification cards for “assimilação” (“assimilation”), located in ten boxes at the Mozambique Historical Archive, are going to be the main source to my analyze. On the one hand, “assimilation” requirements are important sources for understanding the daily exercise of Portuguese colonial tools created to control Africans and to produce a cheap working force. On the other hand, reading between the lines of colonial documentation, it is in the comings and goings necessary to prove the right to become an assimilado that we can obtain important historical information about the daily life of African lives. Facing and acting inside the dangerous game intrinsic to the system of colonial domination, those documents seems to reveal important social and cultural practices of resistances and resignifications during the dealing with the colonial segregationist legal frameworks. As practices of European colonial domination throughout Africa continent, analyzing the requests made by “natives” to obtain the legal status of “assimilated” - as well as their changes during the existing of this legislation - corresponds to a significant complexification of a recent past that continuous as an important topic of national discussions in Mozambique. Historiographically it intends to solidify a perspective of questioning a supposed peculiarity of Portuguese colonialism in Africa, allowing us to make comparisons with other contexts of European power and domination over the African continent during the late nineteen and twentieth-century. At the same time, appoints to the legal and daily vulnerability produced by the colonial regime that affected African populations in this period and the ways in which these populations confronted, through their actions inside the state bureaucratic control procedures created by colonialism, forcing changes at the European mechanisms of power.
Coping with undesired migration: Spanish exclusions policies in colonial America, 1590-1620
Coping with undesired migration: Spanish exclusions policies in colonial America, 1590-1620In the transition from the 16th to the 17th century, the viceroyalty of New Spain presented significant economic development and urban expansion thanks to its mining exploitation, territorial annexation, and its rise as entrepôt between the Atlantic and the Pacific markets. Mexico became a geographical corridor for non-Spanish labor and merchant migrants from several European territories. This paper will examine some measures taken from above to marginalize immigrants of suspicious origin and religiosity in the colonial context. It will also discuss how the combination of these actions created a more defined categorization of foreigners as enemies and heretics.
"Privileged minorities" in the service of Russian tsars
"Privileged minorities" in the service of Russian tsarsForeigners who came to tsarist Russia from other European countries, officially lived on its territory "by the highest permission." The migration policy of the Russian authorities depended on many factors: geopolitical situations, wars, strategies for settling undeveloped and sparsely populated areas, changes in domestic policy, etc. In some periods, the government stimulated a massive influx of foreign colonists (for example, under Catherine II, who settled the territory of southern Russia), sometimes significantly limited (for example, after the Napoleonic invasion of Russia). At the same time, those foreigners whom the government specially invited to Russia for the purpose of developing technological and cultural innovations have always been in a special position. They formed a social layer that preserved the linguistic, confessional and cultural identity in Russia. Foreigners-Europeans (Italians, Greeks etc) served the Russian tsars from XV century. Many of them settled in Russia, finding a new homeland in it. However, especially massive influx of European specialists in Russia becomes in the reign of the first Romanovs. Under Mikhail Fedorovich, Alexei Mikhailovich, Fyodor Alekseevich, Sophia Alekseevna, Ivan Alekseevich, a significant flow of foreigners arrives in Russia. Ethno-confessional communities of foreigners become "privileged minorities" in Russian society. Under Peter the Great they got unprecedented privileges. They were Dutch, Danes, English, Italians, Swiss, citizens of the free cities of Central Europe, etc. Among others stood out the "Germans" and the French. At the same time, the Germans lived in "communities", and the French, despite their significant number, preferred to maintain an individual status.
Numbering inferiors: Discourses of demographic fear in early modern Spanish America
Numbering inferiors: Discourses of demographic fear in early modern Spanish AmericaThis paper reflects on the definition of “minorities” based on the example of Early Modern Spanish America. Departing from numerical demographics, it asks how people were assigned to racial groups in colonial society, how groups became associated with stereotypical traits, and how fears of racial imbalance influenced demographic policy and the agency of minorities. This takes into account demographic phenomena characteristic of colonial Spanish America, including the collapse of the indigenous population, the concentration of white elites in only certain colonies, the large-scale “importation” of enslaved Africans, and the creation of new ethnic labels through the intermingling of these groups.