H – Knowledge production
Knowledge production of the Other: Circulations, appropriations, co-productions
Thursday, 25 June - 13:00 – 15:00
- ThemeH – Knowledge production
- Bulent Ari (Istanbul University)
- Luca Zan (Nanjing University; University of Bologna)
- Brice Cossart (University Pablo de Olavide, Seville)
- Hernando Cepeda Sánchez (National University of Colombia)
- Jacob Tropp (Middlebury College)
- Klaus Dittrich (The Education University of Hong Kong)
Shipbuilding & early forms of modern management. Comparing Venice & the Ottomans after Lepanto (1571)
Shipbuilding & early forms of modern management. Comparing Venice & the Ottomans after Lepanto (1571)This is the first paper in a broader research projects comparing the Venice & Ottoman shipbuilding at the turn of the 16th century, under the lenses of administrative history. We are interested in commonalities and differences in managing shipbuilding on the two sides of the sea, on the two sides of the conflict. Within the general research, this paper focuses on the afterword of Lepanto’s battle, seen from the Ottoman’s point of view. What was the impact of the Lepanto defeat in terms of production, organizational and accounting aspects? How was it possible for the Ottomans to rebuild a complete fleet in a matter of months? How was the political crisis addressing the extraordinary production effort, and what were the main managerial and accounting conditions to make this possible? Moreover, to what extent this extraordinary effort was – at the same time – a consequence and a driver of a different pattern of organizing economic activities on the two sides of Mediterranean Sea?
Global Guns: Iberian technicians, Indian workers and African slaves in the cannon-manufactures of early 17th century Cuba and Mexico
Global Guns: Iberian technicians, Indian workers and African slaves in the cannon-manufactures of early 17th century Cuba and MexicoEarly modern cannons have become a symbol of European overseas expansion. In defence of sea-fortresses and on board of ships spread around the globe, cannons were key infrastructures sustaining the navigation lines of the first globalization. The prolific literature on the Military Revolution has depicted them as an intrinsically European technology which provided a decisive advantage for the mastering of coastal areas and long-distance trade. The aim of this paper is two-fold : by focusing on cannon manufactures created in late 16th century Cuba and Mexico, it will shed light on the contribution of overseas territories to the production of artillery, and analyze it in terms of economic performance and logistical advantages. Moreover, it intends to highlight the complex cross-cultural circulation of knowledge which took place in these production centres, as experts coming from Spain and Portugal worked side by side with Indian artisans and African slaves trained in different metallurgical techniques. In this perspective, the paper also seeks to discuss the social impact which the acquisition of such a strategic knowledge might have had on Indian and African workers involved in the making of artillery.
Hernando Cepeda Sánchez
New-Grenadian Eyes. Vision and perception of the Asian world in the 19th century
New-Grenadian Eyes. Vision and perception of the Asian world in the 19th centuryBy the middle of the nineteenth century, the physical world seemed smaller. So many connections between regions, previously separated, were overcome through the development and enhancement of transport and communications. Although contact between western countries and eastern regions was a historical fact, there was an enormous change in the vision and perception of eastern countries (in this case, this is limited to the Manchu Empire and Tokugawa Empire) in the 19thcentury. Certainly, the most noteworthy imperialistic countries of the period we are concerned with, England and France, advanced in producing a social imaginary of the entire Asian region. But not many people from other countries had the opportunity to travel east nor did they have any interest in doing so. Still, a few travelled to China and Japan loaded with previous experience, built through northern European ways to understand the world. This study intends to decipher an enigmatic historical problem, related with the way in which New-Grenadians observed the geographical part of the earth known as Asia in the mid-nineteenth century. There are not many contributions related to this specific region, although much has been written focusing on the issue of observationfrom an esthetical perspective, physiological analysis, or postcolonial approach. Here Nicolás Tanco Armero’s (NTA) —the first known Grenadian that travelled to the Manchu Empire— eyes have been used to reveal his mental tools, inherited from the modern perspective of European civilization, that include notions of race and climate determination; law; religious and political evolution; and, of course, an ideology of nation building. Based on the analytical category of system of representation, this paper expects to present the individual mentality of NTA, his education, cultural capital and ideological influences. His writingsand the exposition of his observations are the foremost testimony of the European imperialistic view that constrains a “neutral” appreciation or observation of the Asian world.Finally, the reception, expressed in newspapers and his books, show the production of a collective psychology that conditioned our representations of Eastern countries. Even the random use of the wordEast means that there are dominant “colonial” notions of historical and geographical determination. As well as the development of History, Europeans intellectuals pursued their self-recognition through the knowledge of the world. Cf. Osterhammel Jurgen. The transformation of the world: A global history of the nineteenth century. Princeton University Press. 2014. 24-121 One important contribution —published in Hong Kong— stablished the similitudes among traveler’s ethnographies aptitudes, mainly new Grenadians, and the British model that probably they followed. Cf. Fombona, Jacinto. “Travel and Business: the first colombian in China. In: Clark, Steve and Paul Smethurs. Asian crossing: travel writing in China. Hong Kong University Press. 2008. 71-86. Those interested in going further into notions of vision, depiction and perception, see: Gordon Ian. Theories of visual perception. Psychology Press, 2004. 30. Flint Shier,Deeper into pictures. An essay on pictorial representation. Cambridge University Press. 1986. 11. See also the notion of Hybris of cero point. Castro-Gómez, Santiago. La hybris del punto cero. Ciencia, raza e ilustración en la Nueva Granada (1750-1816). Bogotá, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. 2010. Over representation there is plenty bibliography that it’d be insufficient space to quote all the contributions. However, two classic influences are: Stuart Hall, Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practice,with some notions like stereotyping, visual representation (225); Regime of racial representation, Practices of racial representation and Politics of representation, where is discussed the relation between power and knowledge (256). See also, Chartier Roger. El mundo como representación. Barcelona, Gedisa, 2005 Cfr: Mary Louise Pratt, Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation, 2nd ed (London: New York: Routledge, 2008), 7.“This is particularly true in the non-European world, where western European philosophical and scientific notions of representation, vision, and truth were molded to fit the particular political and cultural agendas of both the agents of imperial rule and the natives who resisted (and accommodated) their rule”. Also, Poole, Deborah. Vision, race and modernity. New Jersey, Princeton, 1997. 9 Notion of modes of inscription and mediation between the non-European world to a European public (1332-33): Keighren Innes M. and Charles W. J. Withers “Questions of Inscription and Epistemology in British Travelers’ Accounts of Early Nineteenth-Century South America” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 101(6) 2011, pp. 1331–1346.
Transnational Indigenous Environmentalism and the Settler Colonial Politics of Uranium Mining, Late 1970s to Early 1980s
Transnational Indigenous Environmentalism and the Settler Colonial Politics of Uranium Mining, Late 1970s to Early 1980sThis paper reveals how the traumatic impacts of uranium mining on the Diné (Navajo) peoples of the American Southwest became significant globally in the late 1970s to early 1980s, particularly for Aboriginal communities in northern Australia and Namibians living under South African apartheid, groups similarly contending with settler colonial legacies and the expanding power of multinational mining corporations. A range of transnational activities (conferences from New Mexico to Copenhagen and hearings at the United Nations) illuminates how these diversely situated activists collectively framed their particular situations of environmental injustice within larger shared experiences of colonialism and global capitalism.
Nineteenth-Century World Exhibitions and the Emergence of a Global Grammar of Schooling
Nineteenth-Century World Exhibitions and the Emergence of a Global Grammar of SchoolingDuring the second half of the nineteenth century the high time of great international exhibitions coincided with a massive expansion of education in many contexts worldwide. World exhibitions comprised educational sections which not only served the transnational circulation of pedagogical knowledge and the nationalistic representation of educational achievements, but also provided an opportunity to discuss projects of international cooperation. Based on a broad empirical basis of contemporary reports from several countries, this paper traces how key experts used world exhibitions in order to promote a global grammar of schooling, comparable to today’s efforts of the OECD, UNESCO or the World Bank.