A – Minorities, national belonging, and state-building
Minorities, migrants and social change across time
Thursday, 25 June - 15:30 – 17:30
- ThemeA – Minorities, national belonging, and state-building
- Diego Holstein (University of Pittsburgh)
- Irina Konovalova (Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of World History)
- Fabian Norbert (Ruhr-University of Bochum)
- Maya Petrova (Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of World History)
“Convivencia:” Three Cultures, Triple Divergence in Medieval Spain
“Convivencia:” Three Cultures, Triple Divergence in Medieval SpainOn May 1085, the Kingdom of Castilla conquered its first mayor city in al-Andalus, Toledo, the former capital of the Visigoth Kingdom. By the time of the con-quest, the city and its rural hinterland was populated by some 30,000 inhabitants: Muslims, Arabized Christians (known as Mozarabs), and Jews. As the new Castilian rule and grip on the region grew stronger during the subsequent two centuries, these three minority groups underwent divergent trajectories: mi-gration, assimilation, and segregation, respectively. This paper presents and contrasts the unfolding of these three trajectories.
Rus minority as an agent of social and political change in the context of East-European Politogenesis (9th–10th Centuries)
Rus minority as an agent of social and political change in the context of East-European Politogenesis (9th–10th Centuries)My aim is to examine the activities of Rus minority in Eastern Europe from a transregional perspective and to compare Rus expansion in two directions — by the Dnieper and the Black Sea to Byzantium and by the Volga to the Caspian Sea. Although having much in common, the results of Rus expansion towards Byzantium and in the Caspian direction were fundamentally different. If the Rus aimed at accumulating material resources in both regions, their movement to political subjectivity is seen only in the area connected with the route to Byzantium, where the Rus became the driving force of politogenesis.
Mesoeconomic, regional progress and the rise of more inclusive societies: The crisis of feudalism, the early English revolution of 1381 and the modern history of emancipation
Mesoeconomic, regional progress and the rise of more inclusive societies: The crisis of feudalism, the early English revolution of 1381 and the modern history of emancipationIn a global and broad historical perspective, the leading institutional economist Daron Acemoglu and the political scientist James A. Robinson ask ‚Why Nations Fail’ and why others prosper. Their answer is that nations remain poor and fail because of exclusive and extractive institutions and they are successful through inclusive institutions. The early English revolutions of 1381 and of the 17th century were turning historical points in a European and global perspective, also for D. Acemoglu and J. A. Robinson. They argue that these revolutions helped to overcome late feudal-extractive institutions which tried to enforce the statute of labourers from 1351onwards. Revolutions and reform movements therefore contributed to develop more free labour relations and living conditions and more inclusive, democratic institutions. In the paper, the early English revolution of 1381 is seen in the encompassing comparative context of the modern history of freedom and emancipation, and as a starting point of this global history. But at the same time, the decay and the crisis of feudalism were a background of this revolution against feudal-extractive and ruling upperclass minorities, who were politically and socially suppressing the large majority of the common people. Early regional and mesoeconomic progress was one of the reasons of the decay of feudalism and of forms of bastard feudalism and it enabled the at least partial success already of early revolutions. Historiographical and sociohistorical discussions on the crisis and overcoming of feudalism and of exclusive-extractive institutions have then to include the aims and the impact of following larger revolutions and social movements of modern times too. Transformation processes in historical societies which are still dominated by exclusive-extractive institutions towards more inclusive structures should be analysed and discussed in a global perspective. What were concrete social and socioeconomic, sociocultural and sociopolitical obstacles to overcome exclusive-extractive institutions and to what extent can regional and mesoeconomic progress contribute to as a whole more inclusive societies? And how do crises of socioeconomic and social institutions and progress relate to each other? In many cases, more inclusive transformations were supported by social-ethic and enlighted ideas and theories which can be important forces to overcome extractive exclusiveness, backwardness and inequality. But real historical and social progress is often discontinuous (Friedrich Rapp) and therefore not linear and not determinated. Progress is interrupted by natural catastrophes, wars and new crises. What’s more structures of concrete institutions, economies and societies in the global world are often furthermore mixtures of more exclusive, more extractive and of more inclusive elements. D. Acemoglu and J. A. Robinson stress therefore, too, that „the corridor to liberty is narrow“. So, we have to learn from the historical failures and from the successes on the way to free, social and inclusive modern societies.
Reconstruction of the collective biography of social minorities of early civilizations: problems and solutions from the perspective of global history
Reconstruction of the collective biography of social minorities of early civilizations: problems and solutions from the perspective of global historyThe problem of minorities is relevant for all epochs, peoples and states. Only a global approach allows us to understand all its nuances and social significance. In this paper, this problem considered on the example of the analysis of the life and activities of physicians of the Roman Empire (I-V centuries). For this aim individual and collective biographies of physicians (1st – 5th centuries) of the Roman Empire are reconstructed and analyzed by using new historical methods and approaches. The information about such characters as Anthony Musa, Sextius Niger, Scribonius Largus, Rufus of Ephesus, Galen, Serenius Sammonius, Theodore Priscian, Adamantius, Marcellus Empiricus and others, is analyzed. In particular, the issue of the origin of doctors, their names and nicknames, positions, social status, duties and rights, features of professional activity, the subject and content of their medical texts is considered. In conclusion, a list of general provisions of the collective biography of physicians of the Roman Empire is proposed; the new methods and approaches to the study and evaluation of their activities in the context of global history are demonstrated; the importance to study multilevel cultural contacts as components of the emergence of a global cultural network is noted.