Vectorial calibration of superconducting magnets with a quantum magnetic sensor

Rev. Scient. Instr. 91, 125003 (2020)

L. Botsch, N. Raatz, S. Pezzagna, R. Staacke, R. John, B. Abel, P. D. Esquinazi, J. Meijer, and S. Diziain

Cryogenic vector magnet systems make it possible to study the anisotropic magnetic properties of materials without mechanically rotating the sample but by electrically tilting and turning the magnetic field. Vector magnetic fields generated inside superconducting vector magnets are generally measured with three Hall sensors. These three probes must be calibrated over a range of temperatures, and the temperature-dependent calibrations cannot be easily carried out inside an already magnetized superconducting magnet because of remaining magnetic fields. A single magnetometer based on an ensemble of nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond is proposed to overcome these limitations. The quenching of the photoluminescence intensity emitted by NV centers can determine the field in the remanent state of the solenoids and allows an easy and fast canceling of the residual magnetic field. Once the field is reset to zero, the calibration of this magnetometer can be performed in situ by a single measurement of an optically detected magnetic resonance spectrum. Thereby, these magnetometers do not require any additional temperature-dependent calibrations outside the magnet and offer the possibility to measure vector magnetic fields in three dimensions with a single sensor. Its axial alignment is given by the crystal structure of the diamond host, which increases the accuracy of the field orientation measured with this sensor, compared to the classical arrangement of three Hall sensors. It is foreseeable that the magnetometer described here has the potential to be applied in various fields in the future, such as the characterization of ferromagnetic core solenoids or other magnetic arrangements.