Grammatical Universals

Usage-based explanation of universal coding asymmetries in grammar

This project (officially called “Form-frequency correspondences in grammar”, or FormGram), headed by Martin Haspelmath, has received funding from the ERC (European Research Council) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement no 670985).

For more information on the project, see this page: Grammatical Universals Project.

Project activities

• Upcoming conference talks

(for Leipzig seminar talks, see “Seminar“)

January 2019

January 3-6: SPCL-Winterjahrestagung, New York

Talk by Susanne Maria Michaelis: tba

• Past talks

October 2018

October 22-24: Typology of Morphosyntactic Parameters, Moscow:

Talk  by Ilja Seržant: Evolution of bound person indexes: the dynamic-typology approach

September 2018:

September 3-5: Syntax of the World’s Languages, Paris:

Talk by Martin Haspelmath: How passives and dative alternations are related to split (or differential) object marking

Talk by Susanne Maria Michaelis: Avertive constructions in Seychelles Creole and beyond

Talk by Karsten Schmidtke-Bode: Syntactic determinants of the development of articles: A cross- linguistic investigation

Talk by Jingting Ye: Post-nominal classifier as definite article in Southwest Mandarin Chinese

August 2018:

August 29 – September 1st: SLE Conference Tallinn:

Talk by Martin Haspelmath & Susanne Maria Michaelis: Differential coding in grammar: Split and partitioned coding as special cases

Talk by Katarzyna Janic: Markedness reversal as a diachronic process of alignment change in Inuktitut

Talk by Natalia Levshina & Alena Witzlack-Makarevich (University of Kiel): Explaining scale effects in differential argument case marking: Evidence from dialogue corpora

Talk by Susanne Maria Michaelis: Asymmetry in tense-aspect coding: Creole data support a universal trend

Talk by Ilja Seržant: Evolution of bound person indexes: the dynamic-typology approach

July 2018:

July 16-18: Talk talk by Natalia Levshina at the 10th International Conference on Construction Grammar, Paris: Collostructional predictability and communicative efficiency: A new perspective on English near-synonymous constructions

July 13: Workshop “Historical and comparative linguistics in Jena” (MPI-SHH Jena)

Talk by Martin Haspelmath: Cross-linguistic evidence for functional-adaptive constraints and change: The case of coding asymmetries

Talk by Susanne Maria Michaelis: Support from creole languages for functional adaptation in grammar

Talk by Karsten Schmidtke-Bode: Signal management in clause combinations: Towards a typological systematization

June 2018:

June 27-28 June : Invited talk by Natalia Levshina at the workshop “Semantic maps: Where do we stand and where are we going?“, Liège (Belgium) : Semantic maps of causative constructions: Data types and methods in contrast”

Mai 2018:

Mai 3: lecture by Natalia Levshina at the University at Jena

Mai 11: lecture by Natalia Levshina at the Max-Planck-Institute for Human History

April 2018:

Apr 02-15: lecture and conference talks by Ilja A. Seržant  at the University of Latvia, Riga: A corpus and usage-based approach to Ancient Greek: from the Archaic period until the Koiné

Apr 11-14 talk by Martin Haspelmath  at the Stockholm University talk; dissertation defense

March 2018:

Mar 5-11: lecture by Natalia Levshina at the Course for postdoctoral and advanced Master students at Tallinn University: Statistics for linguists with R

March 7-9: DGfS Annual Conference Stuttgart: Ilja A. Seržant, workshop organizer (Workshop on Possessive relations)

March 8: Martin Haspelmath, workshop talk (Workshop Referential and relational approaches to syntactic asymmetries): Universals of argument marking in scenario splits and universals of reflexive marking in a functional-adaptive theory of syntax

February 2018

Feb 15-16: Invited talk by Martin Haspelmath, at the University of Oslo, NoSLiP (3rd Norwegian Graduate Student Conference in Linguistics and Philology)

Feb 22-23: Keynote talk by Natalia Levshina at the workshop “Parallel text analysis in diachronic research”, University of Marburg: Grammaticalization and parallel corpora: how to make semantic change visible

January 2018

Jan 10: Invited talk by Susanne Maria Michaelis, at the Freie Universität Berlin, Forschungskolloquium der romanistischen Sprachwissenschaft: Typology of creole languages.

Jan 8-12: talk by Natalia Levshina at the Practical course for postdoctoral and advanced Master students at the LOT Winter School, Free University of Amsterdam: Statistical Models of Language Variation with R

Jan 17-19: talk by Natalia Levshina at the workshop “Typology of zero-marking”, University of Bremen: Stay (at) home and komm (am) Montag: an information-theoretic account of language variation

Jan 17-19: talk by Martin Haspelmath at the workshop “Typology of zero-marking”, University of Bremen: Nullkodierung in der Sprachbeschreibung und in der Sprachtypologie

Jan 17-19: talk by Susanne Maria Michaelis at the workshop “Typology of zero-marking”, University of Bremen: Nullkodierung in Tempus – Aspekt – Systemen von Kreolsprache

Jan 17-19: talk by Karsten Schmidtke-Bode at the workshop “Typology of zero-marking”, University of Bremen: Signalreduktion und Nullkodierung in der Satzverbindung

Jan 17-19: talk by Ilja A. Seržant at the workshop “Typology of zero-marking”, University of Bremen: Coding asymmetries in verbal bound person – number indexes

Jan 17-19: talk by Darja Dermaku-Appelganz at the workshop “Typology of zero-marking”, University of Bremen: Zero coding in Flagbase

December 2017

Dec 4-7: Conference talk by Martin Haspelmath, Australian Linguistic Society conference, Sydney: On the scope of the grammatical form-frequency correspondence hypothesis

Dec 12-15: Association for Linguistic Typology conference, Canberra, Workshop on typological databases coorganized by Martin Haspelmath; conference poster “Explaining form-frequency correspondences in grammar: Mutational constraints vs. functional-adaptive constraints”

November 2017

Nov 16:  Conference talk by Ilja A. Seržant, at INaLCO (Paris): The diachronic typology of differential object marking. Workshop “Diachrony of Differential Object Marking”, November 16-17, 2017. URL: http://home.uni-leipzig.de/serzant/CfP_DOM.Diachrony_Paris.2017_final.pdf

Nov 28: guest lecture given by Natalia Levshina at the University of Jena: What can corpora tell us about linguistic universals?

October 2017

Oct 11: talk given by Ilja A. Seržant at the XLANS conference on “Triggers of Language Change”, October 11-13, 2017, Lyon: Evolution of bound person indexes: the dynamic-typology approach

Oct 16: talk given by Natalia Levshina at the the ConCorT conference, organized by the Higher School of Economics, Moscow: What can corpora tell us about linguistic universals?

September 2017

Sep 2-6: Summer school lectures by Martin Haspelmath on grammatical universals, at Moscow (Voronovo) summer school “Typology and Lexicon“.

Sep 8: Plenary talk by Susanne Maria Michaelis, at the Summer School of the SLE, University of Neuchâtel: Principled hybridization in creole languages.

Sept 9: conference talk given by Ilja A. Seržant at the International Conference on Greek Linguistics (ICGL 13), 7-9 September 2017, University of Westminster: Tracing the development of prepositional phrases.

Sep 8-9: Summer school lectures by Karsten Schmidtke-Bode at the SLE Summer School (University of Neuchâtel): Usage-based linguistics and language typology.

Sept 10: Conference talk by Ilja A. Seržant, at University of Zürich: Differential object markers and datives. 50th Annual Meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea. 10–13 September 2017.

Sep 10: Conference talk by Susanne Maria Michaelis, at University of Zürich: Asymmetry in path coding: Creole data support a universal trend . 50th Annual Meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea. 10–13 September 2017.

Sept 13: talk given by Natalia Levshina at the 50th SLE meeting, University of Zurich: T/V forms in European languages: A quantitative study based on a parallel corpus of film subtitles.

Sep 18-22: Conference talk by Ilja A. Seržant, at University of Jena: The development of verbal person indexes in Indo-European languages  als Vortrag in der Sektion Indogermanistik auf dem 33. Deutschen Orientalistentag (DOT) 2017.

Sept 30.09.: talk given by Natalia Levshina at the 7th Biennial International Conference on the Linguistics of Contemporary English, Universidade de Vigo: Why go Bayesian? A corpus linguist’s perspective.

July 2017

Jul 12: Workshop talk by Susanne Maria Michaelis, at Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena: Explaining the features of creole languages: Language shift and the division of labor between substrates and lexifiers. DLCE Workshop “Language shift and substratum interference in (pre)history”

Jul 13: .: talk given by Natalia Levshina at the International Cognitive Linguistics Conference, Tartu University: No alarms when no surprises: The principle of economy and constructions with the bare and to-infinitive in English.

Jul 2017: Conference talk by Karsten Schmidtke-Bode at the 3rd Usage-Based Linguistics Conference (Jerusalem): Processing typology and cross-linguistic variation in NP structure: An assessment of Hawkins’ efficiency predictions

Jul 13: Workshop talk by Martin Haspelmath, at the Workshop “Markedness: Perspectives in Morphology and Phonology“, University of Frankfurt/Main: Architects vs. engineers: Making markedness function

Jul 25: talk given by Natalia Levshina at the Corpus Lingustics Conference, University of Birmingham: Bringing together corpus linguisics and typology: Frequency, informativity and grammatical asymmetries

June 2017

Jun 3-30: Guest lectures by Susanne Maria Michaelis on creole languages, Chaire Internationale Labex-EFL (Paris, INALCO)

Jun 8-11: Workshop talk by Martin Haspelmath: The DNA and evolution of languages. Workshop on “Variation and universals in language”, Crecchio (Abruzzo)

Jun 19: Workshop talk by Susanne Maria Michaelis, at University of Tampere: Asymmetry in path coding: Creole data support a universal trend. Annual Summer Conference of the Society for Pidgin and Creole Linguistics, 19-22 June 2017.

Jun 19: Workshop talk by Martin Haspelmath: Language typology: The Humboldtian and the Greenbergian traditions. FU Berlin workshop on the occasion of Wilhelm von Humboldt’s 250th birthday, Berlin.

Mai 2017

May 22: talk given by Natalia Levshina at the NoDaLiDa Workshop on Universal Dependencies (UDW 2017, the University of Gothenburg): Syntactic Communicative efficiency and syntactic predictability: A cross-linguistic study based on the Universal Dependencies corpora.

April 2017

Apr 7: Invited talk by Ilja A. Seržant, at University of Zürich: The dynamics of Greek prepositions (with the main focus on perì ‘about’): corpus-based approach. URL: http://www.agenda.uzh.ch/record.php?id=33510&group=82;public

March 2017

Mar 02: Workshop talk (Journée créole) by Susanne Maria Michaelis, at Regensburg University: Asymmetric coding of allatives and ablatives in creole languages

Mar 8-10: Workshop (AG) on coding asymmetries and usage frequency at DGfS Annual Meeting Saarbrücken, with talks by Martin Haspelmath, Natalia Levshina, Karsten Schmidtke-Bode, Ilja Seržant

Mar 09: Conference talk by Karsten Schmidtke-Bode at the DGfS Annual Meeting (University of Saarbrücken): Signal reduction at clause boundaries: Towards a typological systematization.

Mar 10: Conference talk by Ilja A. Seržant at University of Saarland. Towards functional motivation for the reduced third person indexing. 39. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Sprachwissenschaft. URL: http://dgfs2017.uni-saarland.de/wordpress/arbeitsgruppen/ag-5/

Mar 14: talk given by Natalia Levshina at LICTRA 2017 Leipzig International Conference on Translation & Interpretation Studies, Leipzig University: Translation of ‘you’ in online film subtitles: A quantitative cross-linguistic study.

Mar 16: Keynote presentation by Susanne Maria Michaelis, at the Fourth International Conference on Language Contact in Times of Globalization (LCTG4), at Greifswald University: Explaining the features of creole languages: Language shift and the division of labor between substrates and lexifers

Mar 24: Workshop talk by Susanne Maria Michaelis, at the Eleventh Creolistics Workshop at Gießen University: Independent possessive person-forms are longer: Creole data support a universal trend

Mar 28: Conference talk by Karsten Schmidtke-Bode at the Vielfaltslinguistikkonferenz (Leipzig University and Nikolai-Lab): Seeking patterns in diversity: On the use of intragenealogical samples in typological research.

Mar 28: Workshop talk by Susanne Maria Michaelis, at the Vielfaltskonferenz (Leipzig University & Nikolai-Lab) : Asymmetry in path coding: Creole data support a universal trend

Mar 28: Conference talk by Ilja A. Seržant at University of Leipzig: Differential object and subject marking from clefts. Presented at the conference “Vielfaltslinguistik in Leipzig. Konferenz für Typologie und Feldforschung. URL: http://research.uni-leipzig.de/unicodas/vielfaltslinguistik-in-leipzig/

Mar 28: conference talk given by Natalia Levshina at at Vielfalslinguistik in Leipzig conference, Leipzig University: Economy, iconicity or productivity? A typological study of causative constructions

January 2017

Jan 6: Plenary conference talk by Martin Haspelmath, at ConSOLE 25 (Leipzig University): Do aliens have UG? On efficiency of grammatical coding as an explanation for grammatical universals

Jan 12: Seminar talk by Ilja Seržant: Two developmental paths of Differential Object Marking

Jan 18: Invited talk by Natalia Levshina, at Gießen University: Permutation and recursive partitioning: word order, semantic complexity, politeness and the art of tea-tasting. URL: http://www.natalialevshina.com/Documents/Permutation.pdf

Jan 26: Seminar talk by Natalia Levshina: Economy, iconicity and productivity: A typological study of causative constructions (Diversity Linguistics Seminar)

December 2016

Dec 16: Invited talk by Martin Haspelmath, at Leiden University: Universal constraints on syntactic argument coding: Functional-adaptive, mutational and representational

November 2016

Nov 12: Conference talk by Susanne Maria Michaelis (& Martin Haspelmath), at conference “Inferences in Interaction and Language Change” (FRIAS Freiburg): Why independent possessive person-forms are longer: Diverse sources conspiring toward a uniform result

Nov 24 : Invited talk by Natalia Levshina, at Kiel University: Parallel corpora, conditional inference trees and random forests: How to compare constraints cross-linguistically. URL: http://www.natalialevshina.com/Documents/Levshina_Kiel2016.pdf

October 2016

Oct 26: Guest talk by Susanne Maria Michaelis at Afrikakolloquium (HU Berlin): Atlas of Pidgin and Creole Language Structures

September 2016

September 1-2: Workshop on Functional Motivations and Diachronic Explanation in Typology at the Annual Meeting of the SLE, with talks by Martin Haspelmath, Susanne Maria Michaelis, Natalia Levshina, Karsten Schmidtke-Bode and Ilja Seržant

Sept 16: Workshop talk by Martin Haspelmath, at University of Jena: Can we distinguish between mutational constraints and functional-adaptive constraints in explaining typological generalizations?

Sept 15 : Workshop talk by Natalia Levshina, at the 46th Poznań Linguistic Meeting, Adam Mickiewicz University. What causes causatives? A multifactorial study based on a parallel corpus. URL: http://www.natalialevshina.com/Documents/Levshina_PLM2016.pdf

August 2016

August 11: Seminar talk by Karsten Schmidtke-Bode: Complement clauses and complementation systems in cross-linguistic perspective.

June 2016

June 8: Seminar talk by Ilja Seržant: Towards the diachronic typology of differential P and S marking.

June 13: Guest talk by Ilja Seržant at the University of Cologne: Towards the diachronic typology of differential argument marking.

June 15: Conference talk by Natalia Levshina, at the 2nd Usage-Based Linguistics Conference, Tel Aviv University Tel Aviv: Frequency, predictability and grammatical asymmetries: Evidence from Google n-grams. URL: http://www.natalialevshina.com/Documents/Levshina_TelAviv2016.pdf

June 11: Conference talk by Natalia Levshina, at the Olomouc Linguistics Colloquium (Olinco), Olomouc University: A pilot study of T/V-forms in European languages based on a parallel corpus of film subtitles. URL: http://www.natalialevshina.com/Documents/Levshina_OLinCo2016.pdf

May 2016

May 19: Conference talk Ilja Seržant, at the conference “Sanskrit and the Linguistic Revolution – 200 years of Indo-European Studies” Jena: A new category in Tocharian: the Inagentive.

April 2016

April 4: Invited talk by Natalia Levshina, at the workshop “Probabilistic variation across dialects and varieties”, University of Leuven: Help + (to) Infinitive in twenty geographic varieties of web-based English: A Bayesian mixed-model approach. URL: http://www.natalialevshina.com/Documents/Levshina_Leuven2016.pdf

April 22: Workshop talk by Ilja Seržant, at the Working Meeting devoted to Differential Argument Marking. Moscow, Institute of Linguistics: Symmetric DOM: The case of Latvian.

Publications

• Drafts

Haspelmath, Martin. How comparative concepts and descriptive linguistic categories are different. [zenodo]

• To appear

Haspelmath, Martin. 2018. The last word on polysynthesis: A review article on The Oxford handbook of polysynthesis, ed. by N. Evans, M. Fortescue, M. Mithun (2017). To appear in Linguistic Typology [Academia.edu]

Levshina, Natalia. 2018. Conditional inference trees and random forests. To appear in Magali Paquot & Stefan Th. Gries (eds.). Practical handbook of corpus linguistics. Berlin & New York: Springer.

Serzant, Ilja A. 2018. More on Perfect and Resultative in Tocharian. Submitted to Thomas Jügel & Robert Crellin (eds.). The Indo-European Perfect (CILT). Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Schmidtke-Bode, Karsten & Gregor Kachel. 2018. Exploring the motivational antecedents of Nepalese learners of L2 English. To appear in International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching.

Michaelis, Susanne Maria. 2019. World-wide comparative evidence for calquing valency patterns in creoles. Journal of Language Contact  11.3 (special issue edited by Eitan Grossman, Ilja Seržant & Alena Witzlack-Makarevich)

Zeshan, Ulrike & Bradford, Anastasia & Michaelis, Susanne Maria. 2018. Stabilisation of the lexicon in an emerging jargon: The development of signs to express animate beings in a sign language contact situation. In:  Zeshan, Ulrike & Webster, Jennifer (eds.). Sign multilingualism. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton & Ishara Press.

Seržant, Ilja A. The discriminatory function of case in DOM and the problem of weak universals. In Schmidtke-Bode, Karsten, Natalia Levshina, Susanne Maria Michaelis & Ilja A. Seržant (eds.), Typology, functional motivations and diachrony. (Conceptual Foundations of Language Sciences). Berlin: Language Science Press.

Michaelis, Susanne Maria. Support from creole languages for functional adaptation in grammar: Dependent and independent possessive person-forms. In Schmidtke-Bode, Karsten, Natalia Levshina, Susanne Maria Michaelis & Ilja A. Seržant (eds.), Typology, functional motivations and diachrony. (Conceptual Foundations of Language Sciences). Berlin: Language Science Press.

• Published

2018

Haspelmath, Martin. 2018. A critical review of Mark Baker’s Case (2015). Studies in Language 42(2). 474-486. DOI:10.1075/sl.16059.has [Academia.edu]

Alena, Witzlack-Makarevich & Ilja A. Seržant. 2018. Differential argument marking: Patterns of variation. In Seržant, I. A. & A. Witzlack-Makarevich (eds.), Diachrony of differential argument marking. [Studies in Diversity Linguistics]. Berlin: Language Science Press. http://langsci-press.org/.

Schmidtke-Bode, Karsten & Natalia Levshina. 2018. Reassessing scale effects on differential case marking: Methodological, conceptual and theoretical issues in the quest for a universal. In Ilja A. Seržant & Alena Witzlack-Makarevich (eds.), Diachrony of differential argument marking. Berlin: Language Science Press.

Seržant, I. A. & A. Witzlack-Makarevich (eds.), 2018. Diachrony of differential argument marking. [Studies in Diversity Linguistics 19], Language Science Press.

Levshina, Natalia. 2018. Probabilistic grammar and constructional predictability: Bayesian generalized additive models of help + (to) Infinitive in varieties of web-based English. Glossa 3(1). 55.1-22. DOI: 10.5334/gjgl.294/

Levshina, Natalia. 2018. Online film subtitles as a corpus: An n-gram approach. Corpora 12(3): 311-338. DOI: 10.3366/cor.2017.0123

Levshina, Natalia. 2018. Finding the best fit for direct and indirect causation: a typological study. Lingua Posnaniensis 58(2).  65-83. DOI:  10.1515/linpo-2016-0010

Haspelmath, Martin. 2018. Universals of causative and anticausative verb formation and the spontaneity scale. Lingua Posnaniensis 58(2). 33-63. DOI: 10.1515/linpo-2016-0009 [zenodo]

2017

Haspelmath, Martin. 2017. Explaining alienability contrasts in adpossessive constructions: Predictability vs. iconicity. Zeitschrift für Sprachwissenschaft 36(2). 193-231. DOI: 10.1515/zfs-2017-0009 [zenodo]

Levshina, Natalia. 2017. Measuring iconicity: A quantitative study of analytic and lexical causatives in British English. Functions of Language 24(3). 319 –347. DOI: 10.1075/fol.15013.lev

Seržant, Ilja A. & Björn Wiemer. 2017. Diachrony and typology of Slavic aspect: What does morphology tell us? In Bisang, Walter & Andrej Malchukov (eds.), Unity and diversity in grammaticalization scenarios, 239-307. (Studies in Diversity Linguistics 16). Berlin: Language Science Press. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.823246

Seržant, Ilja A. 2017. Lexikalisierte Reduplikationsbildungen im Tocharischen. In Hajnal, Ivo, Daniel Kölligan & Katharina Zipser (eds.), Miscellanea Indogermanica. Festschrift für José Luis García Ramón zum 65. Geburtstag, 779-785. (Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft). Innsbruck: Universität Innsbruck.

Blasi, Damián E. & Michaelis, Susanne Maria & Haspelmath, Martin. 2017. Grammars are robustly transmitted even during the emergence of creole languages. Nature Human Behaviour DOI: 10.1038/s41562-017-0192-4.

Haspelmath, Martin & Karjus, Andres. 2017. Explaining asymmetries in number marking: Singulatives, pluratives and usage frequency. Linguistics 55(6). DOI: 10.1515/ling-2017-0026

Levshina, Natalia. 2017. A multivariate study of T/V forms in European languages based on a parallel corpus of film subtitles. Research in Language 15(2). 153-172. DOI: 10.1515/rela-2017-0010.

Haspelmath, Martin & the Leipzig Equative Constructions Team. 2017. Equative constructions in world-wide perspective. In: Treis, Yvonne & Vanhove, Martine (eds.) Similative and equative constructions: A cross-linguistic perspective. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Haspelmath, Martin & Michaelis, Susanne Maria. 2017. Analytic and synthetic: Typological change in varieties of European languages. In: Buchstaller, Isabelle & Siebenhaar, Beat (eds.) 2017. Language Variation – European Perspectives VI: Selected papers from the 8th International Conference on Language Variation in Europe (ICLaVE 8), Leipzig 2015. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Levshina, Natalia & Degand, Liesbeth. 2017. Just because: In search of objective criteria of subjectivity expressed by causal connectives. Dialogue & Discourse 8(1): 132-150. URL (open access): http://dad.uni-bielefeld.de/index.php/dad/article/view/3699

Schmidtke-Bode, Karsten and Holger Diessel. 2017. Cross-linguistic patterns in the structure, function and position of (object) complement clauses. Linguistics 55.1: 1-38.

2016

Haspelmath, Martin. 2016. The serial verb construction: Comparative concept and cross-linguistic generalizations. Language and Linguistics 17(3). 291–319. DOI: 10.1177/2397002215626895

Haspelmath, Martin. 2016. The challenge of making language description and comparison mutually beneficial. Linguistic Typology 20(2). 299-301. [Academia]

Divjak, Dagmar, Levshina, Natalia & Klavan, Jane. 2016. Cognitive Linguistics: Looking back, looking forward. Cognitive Linguistics 27(4). 447-464. URL: https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/cogl.2016.27.issue-4/issue-files/cogl.2016.27.issue-4.xml

Levshina, Natalia. 2016. When variables align: A Bayesian multinomial mixed-effects model of English permissive constructions. Cognitive Linguistics 27(2). 235-268.  DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/cog-2015-0054 [zenodo]

Levshina, Natalia. 2016. Why we need a token-based typology: A case study of analytic and lexical causatives in fifteen European languages. Folia Linguistica 50(2). 507-542. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/flin-2016-0019

Levshina, Natalia. 2016: Verbs of letting in Germanic and Romance languages: A quantitative investigation based on a parallel corpus of film subtitles. Languages in Contrast 16(1). 84-117. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1075/lic.16.1.04lev [zenodo]

Ilja A. Seržant. 2016. The Perfect/Resultative in Tocharian. In: T. Maisak, V. A. Plungian, & K. Semenova (eds.), The typology of the perfect: Investigations into the theory of grammar. (Issue VII. Acta Linguistica Petropolitana). St.-Petersburg: Nauka. 237-288.