Martin Haspelmath’s publications (with links)

[see also this page for presentation handouts]

Papers to appear

Different explanations in grammar are mutually compatible: Structural, evolutionary and biocognitive. Draft. [zenodo]

Compound and incorporation constructions as combinations of unexpandable roots. Submitted. [zenodo] [lingbuzz] []

Breadth versus depth: Theoretical reasons for system-independent comparison of languages. Under review. [zenodo]

Why the functional-head theory in syntax is probably wrong. Under review. []

Valency and voice constructions. Draft. [lingbuzz]

Construction-functions versus construction-strategies. To appear in: Locative and existential predication: Forms, functions and neighboring domains, ed. by Chris Lasse Däbritz, Josefina Budzisch and Rodolfo Basile (Berlin: Language Science Press). [Lingbuzz]


Four kinds of lexical items: Words, lexemes, inventorial items, and mental items. To appear in: Lexique. [Lingbuzz] []

Negindefinites and negative concord: Concepts, terms and analyses. To appear in a volume edited by Chiara Gianollo and Johan van der Auwera. [Lingbuzz]

Nonverbal clause constructions. To appear in: Language and Linguistics Compass. [lingbuzz] []

Inflection and derivation as traditional comparative concepts. Linguistics 62(1).43-77.  doi: 10.1515/ling-2022-0086 [open access] [lingbuzz] []


Types of clitics in the world’s languages. Linguistic Typology at the Crossroads 3(2).1-59 [open access] [lingbuzz] []

Word class universals and language-particular analysis. In: Eva van Lier (ed.) The Oxford handbook of word classes, 15-40. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [lingbuzz] [] [zenodo]

Defining the word. WORD 69(3).283-297 [open access] []

Coexpression and synexpression patterns across languages: Comparative concepts and possible explanations. Frontiers in Psychology 14. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1236853 [open access] [lingbuzz] []

Reflexive constructions in the world’s languages, edited by Katarzyna Janic, Nicoletta Puddu, and Martin Haspelmath. Berlin: Language Science Press. ( [open access]

Comparing reflexive constructions in the world’s languages. In: Reflexive constructions in the world’s languages, edited by Katarzyna Janic, Nicoletta Puddu, and Martin Haspelmath. Berlin: Language Science Press, 19-62. ( [open access]

On what a construction is. Constructions 15(1).1-15 doi: 10.24338/cons-539 [open access] [lingbuzz]


Ergative, absolutive, accusative and nominative as comparative concepts. In: Lifetime linguistic inspirations: To Igor Mel’čuk, edited by Leonid Iomdin, Jasmina Milićević, Alain Polguère, 201-213. Frankfurt: Peter Lang. [zenodo] [lingbuzz]

Completing the syntactic paradigms (Reassessing the legacy of Aspects) – commentary on an article by Anna-Maria Di Sciullo. Inference Magazine [OA]


Explaining grammatical coding asymmetries: Form-frequency correspondencies and predictabilityJournal of Linguistics 57(3). 605-633. doi: 10.1017/S0022226720000535 [open access] [lingbuzz]

Role-reference associations and the explanation of argument coding splits. Linguistics 59(1). 123-174. doi: 10.1515/ling-2020-0252 [open access] [lingbuzz]

Bound forms, welded forms, and affixes: Basic concepts for morphological comparison. Voprosy Jazykoznanija 2021(1). 7-28. doi: 10.31857/0373-658X.2021.1.7-28 [lingbuzz] [zenodo]

Towards standardization of morphosyntactic terminology for general linguistics. In: Linguistic categories, language description and linguistic typology, edited by Luca Alfieri, Giorgio Francesco Arcodia, and Paolo Ramat. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 35-57. doi: 10.1075/tsl.132.02has [Lingbuzz] []

General linguistics must be based on universals (or nonconventional aspects of language). Theoretical Linguistics 47(1/2). 1-31. doi: 10.1515/tl-2021-2002 [lingbuzz] [zenodo]

How to tear down the walls that separate linguists: Continuing the quest for clarity about general linguistics [Responses to the commentraries]. Theoretical Linguistics 47(1/2). 137-154. doi: 10.1515/tl-2021-2011 [lingbuzz]


Human linguisticality and the building blocks of languages. Frontiers in Psychology 10(3056). 1-10. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.03056 [open access] [zenodo]

The structural uniqueness of languages and the value of comparison for description. Asian Languages and Linguistics 1(2). 346-366. doi:10.1075/alal.20032.has [open access] [lingbuzz]

The morph as a minimal linguistic form. Morphology 30. 117-134. doi: 10.1007/s11525-020-09355-5 [open access] [lingbuzz] []

On the difference between a clause and a sentence. In: Kibrik, Andrej A. et al. (eds.) 2020. VAProsy jazykoznanija: Megasbornik nanostatej. Moskva: Buki Vedi. [publisher] [zenodo]

[Michaelis, Susanne Maria & Haspelmath] Grammaticalization in creole languages: Accelerated functionalization and semantic imitation. In: Bisang, Walter & Malchukov, Andrej (eds.) Grammaticalization scenarios: Cross-linguistic variation and universal tendencies, vol. 2, 1109-1128. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. doi: 10.1515/9783110712735-013 []


Can cross-linguistic regularities be explained by constraints on change? In: Schmidtke-Bode, Karsten et al. (eds.) 2019. Explanation in typology: Diachronic sources, functional motivations and the nature of the evidence. Berlin: Language Science Press. doi:10.5281/zenodo.2583804 [open access]

Indexing and flagging, and head and dependent marking. Te Reo 62(1). 93-115 [open access] [zenodo]

Differential place marking and differential object marking. Language Typology and Universals (STUF) 72(3). 313-334. doi:10.1515/stuf-2019-0013 [publisher] []

Ergativity and depth of analysis. Rhema 2019(4). 108-130. doi: 10.31862/2500-2953-2019-4-108-130 [open access] [zenodo]


How comparative concepts and descriptive linguistic categories are different. In: Van Olmen, Daniël & Mortelmans, Tanja & Brisard, Frank (eds.) 2018. Aspects of linguistic variation, 83-114. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton [open access]  [zenodo]

Revisiting the anasynthetic spiral. In: Bernd Heine & Heiko Narrog (eds.). 2018. Grammaticalization from a typological perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 97-115. [publisher] [zenodo preprint]

The last word on polysynthesis: A review article (on The Oxford handbook of polysynthesis (2017), ed. by N. Evans, M. Fortescue, M. Mithun). Linguistic Typology 22(2). 307–326. doi: 10.1515/lingty-2018-0011. [publisher] [lingbuzz]

A critical review of Mark Baker’s Case (2015). Studies in Language 42(2). 474-486. doi:10.1075/sl.16059.has [publisher] [zenodo]


[Haspelmath, Martin & the Leipzig Equative Constructions Team] Equative constructions in world-wide perspective. In:  Treis, Yvonne & Vanhove, Martine (eds.) Similative and equative constructions: A cross-linguistic perspective, 9-32. Amsterdam: Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/tsl.117.02has [publisher] [zenodo preprint]

[Haspelmath, Martin & Michaelis, Susanne Maria] 2017. Analytic and synthetic: Typological change in varieties of European languages. In: Isabelle Buchstaller & Beat Siebenhaar (eds.), Language variation – European perspectives VI: Selected papers from the 8th International Conference on Language Variation in Europe (ICLaVE 8), Leipzig 2015. Amsterdam: Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/silv.19.01has [publisher] [zenodo preprint]

Explaining alienability contrasts in adpossessive constructions: Predictability vs. iconicity. Zeitschrift für Sprachwissenschaft 36(2). 193-231. doi: 10.1515/zfs-2017-0009 [open access] [zenodo]

[Haspelmath, Martin & Karjus, Andres] 2017. Explaining asymmetries in number marking: Singulatives, pluratives and usage frequency. Linguistics 55(6). 1213-1235. doi: 10.1515/ling-2017-0026 [publisher] [zenodo preprint]

Some principles for language names. Language Documentation & Conservation 11: 81-93. [open access] [zenodo]

[Blasi, Damían E. & Michaelis, Susanne Maria & Haspelmath, Martin] 2017. Grammars are robustly transmitted even during the emergence of creole languages. Nature Human Behaviour 1. 723–729. doi: 10.1038/s41562-017-0192-4. [publisher]


The serial verb construction: Comparative concept and cross-linguistic generalizations. Language and Linguistics 17(3). 291–319. doi: 10.1177/2397002215626895 [zenodo]

Universals of causative and anticausative verb formation and the spontaneity scale. Lingua Posnaniensis 58(2). 33-63. doi: 10.1515/linpo-2016-0009 [open access] [zenodo]

The challenge of making language description and comparison mutually beneficial. Linguistic Typology 20(2). 299-301. doi: 10.1515/lingty-2016-0008 [zenodo]


Defining vs. diagnosing linguistic categories: A case study of clitic phenomena. In: Błaszczak, Joanna & Klimek-Jankowska, Dorota & Migdalski, Krzysztof (eds.). How categorical are categories? New approaches to the old questions of noun, verb, and adjective, 273-304. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. [publisher] [zenodo]

Transitivity prominence. In Andrej L. Malchukov & Bernard Comrie (eds.), Valency classes in the world’s languages: A comparative handbook, vol. 1, 131–147. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. [publisher] [][zenodo]

[Haspelmath, Martin & Iren Hartmann] Comparing verbal valency across languages. In Andrej L. Malchukov & Bernard Comrie (eds.), Valency classes in the world’s languages: A comparative handbook, vol. 1, 41–71. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. [publisher] [zenodo]

Ditransitive constructions. Annual Review of Linguistics 1. 19-41. [publisher] []

Descriptive scales versus comparative scales. In Ina Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Andrej L. Malchukov & Marc Richards (eds.), Scales and hierarchies: A cross-disciplinary perspective, 45–58. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. [publisher] []

[Grossman, Eitan & Haspelmath, Martin & Richter, Tonio Sebastian] (eds.) Egyptian-Coptic linguistics in typological perspective. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. [publisher]

A grammatical overview of Egyptian and Coptic. In: Grossman, Eitan & Haspelmath, Martin & Richter, Tonio Sebastian (eds.) Egyptian-Coptic linguistics in typological perspective, 103-144. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton [publisher] []

The three adnominal possessive constructions in Egyptian-Coptic:
 Three degrees of grammaticalization. In: Grossman, Eitan & Haspelmath, Martin & Richter, Tonio Sebastian (eds.) Egyptian-Coptic linguistics in typological perspective, 261-288. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton [publisher] []

[Eitan Grossman & Martin Haspelmath] The Leipzig-Jerusalem transliteration of Coptic. In: Grossman, Eitan & Haspelmath, Martin & Richter, Tonio Sebastian (eds.) Egyptian-Coptic linguistics in typological perspective, 145-154. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. [publisher]


Comparative syntax. In: Andrew Carnie, Yosuke Sato, & Dan Siddiqi (eds.), The Routledge handbook of syntax, 490-508. London: Routledge [zenodo]

On system pressure competing with economic motivation. In Brian MacWhinney, Andrej L. Malchukov, & Edith A. Moravcsik (eds.), Competing motivations, 197–208. Oxford: Oxford University Press. []

[Martin Haspelmath, Andreea Calude, Michael Spagnol, Heiko Narrog, Elif Bamyacı]. 2014. Coding causal-noncausal verb alternations:
 A form-frequency correspondence explanation. Journal of Linguistics 50(3). 587-625. [publisher] []

Descriptive hypothesis testing is distinct from comparative hypothesis testing: Commentary on Davis, Gillon, and Matthewson. Language 90(4). e250–e257. DOI: 10.1353/lan.2014.0071 [publisher] []

Arguments and adjuncts as language-particular syntactic categories and as comparative concepts. Linguistic Discovery 12(2). 3–11. [open access]

[Hartmann, Iren & Martin Haspelmath & Michael Cysouw] Identifying semantic role clusters and alignment types via microrole coexpression tendencies. Studies in Language 38(3). 463–484. [publisher] []


On the cross-linguistic distribution of same-subject and different-subject ‘want’ complements: Economic vs. iconic motivation. SKY Journal of Linguistics 26: 41-69. [open access] [zenodo]

[Susanne Maria Michaelis, Philippe Maurer, Martin Haspelmath & Magnus Huber] (eds.) The Atlas of Pidgin and Creole Language Structures. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 

[Susanne Maria Michaelis, Philippe Maurer, Martin Haspelmath & Magnus Huber] (eds.) The Atlas of Pidgin and Creole Language Structures Online.  Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.

[Susanne Maria Michaelis, Philippe Maurer, Martin Haspelmath & Magnus Huber] (eds.) The Survey of Pidgin and Creole Languages.  3 volumes. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 

[Bakker, Dik & Haspelmath, Martin] (eds.) 2013. Languages across boundaries: Studies in memory of Anna Siewierska.  Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.

[Iren Hartmann, Martin Haspelmath & Bradley Taylor] (eds.) Valency Patterns Leipzig. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.

Argument indexing: A conceptual framework for the syntax of bound person forms. In: Bakker, Dik & Haspelmath, Martin (eds.) 2013. Languages across boundaries: Studies in memory of Anna Siewierska, 197-226. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. [publisher] [Zenodo]


How to compare major word-classes across the world’s languages. In: Graf, Thomas & Paperno, Denis & Szabolcsi, Anna & Tellings, Jos (eds.) Theories of everything: in honor of Edward Keenan, 109-130 (UCLA Working Papers in Linguistics, 17.) Los Angeles: UCLA. [open access] [zenodo]

Escaping ethnocentrism in the study of word-class universalsTheoretical Linguistics 38(1-2). [publisher] [zenodo]


On S, A, P, T, and R as comparative concepts for alignment typologyLinguistic Typology 15(3). 535-567. [publisher] [zenodo]

The indeterminacy of word segmentation and the nature of morphology and syntaxFolia Linguistica 45(1). 31-80. [publisher] [zenodo]

The gradual coalescence into “words” in grammaticalization. In:
Heine, Bernd & Narrog, Heiko (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of grammaticalization.
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 342-355. [zenodo]

The language system is abstract but cannot be understood without its social functions. (Comments Martin Stokhof and Michiel van Lambalgen, ” Abstractions and idealisations: the construction of modern linguistics”). Theoretical Linguistics 37. 45-50.


[Andrej Malchukov, Martin Haspelmath & Bernard Comrie] 2010. Studies in ditransitive constructions: A comparative handbook. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 772 pp. [publisher]

[Andrej Malchukov, Martin Haspelmath & Bernard Comrie] 2010. Ditransitive constructions: A typological overview. In: [Andrej Malchukov, Martin Haspelmath & Bernard Comrie] 2010. Studies in Ditransitive Constructions: A Comparative Handbook. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 1-64. doi: 10.1515/9783110220377.1 [zenodo]

[Joseph Atoyebi, Martin Haspelmath & Andrej Malchukov]. 2010. Ditransitive constructions in Yorùbá. In: [Andrej Malchukov, Martin Haspelmath & Bernard Comrie] 2010. Studies in Ditransitive Constructions: A Comparative Handbook. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 145-165.

Comparative concepts and descriptive categories in cross-linguistic studiesLanguage 86(3). 663-687 [zenodo]

The interplay between comparative concepts and descriptive categories (Reply to Newmeyer)Language86(3). 696-699

[Uri Tadmor, Martin Haspelmath, and Bradley Taylor]. 2010. Borrowability and the notion of basic vocabularyDiachronica  27(2). 226-246 (special issue with the papers from the 2009 Swadesh Centennial Conference, edited by Anthony Grant and Søren Wichmann)

Haspelmath, Martin & Sims, Andrea D. 2010. Understanding morphology. 2nd edition. London: Hodder Education, 366 pp. (= Revised version of Haspelmath 2002) [publisher]

Framework-free grammatical theory. In: Heine, Bernd & Narrog, Heiko (eds.) The Oxford handbook of grammatical analysis. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 341-365. [zenodo]

The Behaviour-before-Coding Principle in syntactic change. In: Floricic, Franck (ed.) Mélanges Denis Creissels, 493-506. Paris: Presses de L’École Normale Supérieure. [zenodo]


[Martin Haspelmath & Uri Tadmor]. Loanwords in the world’s languages: A comparative handbook. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1081 pp.
table of contentspublisher’s book page

[Martin Haspelmath & Uri Tadmor] (eds.) World Loanword Database. Munich: Max Planck Digital Library. [data on zenodo]

Haspelmath, Martin. 2009. Pourquoi la typologie des langues est-elle possible? Bulletin de la Société de linguistique de Paris 104(1). 17-38. [zenodo]

[Martin Haspelmath & Uri Tadmor] The Loanword Typology project and the World Loanword Database. In: Haspelmath, Martin & Tadmor, Uri (eds.) Loanwords in the world’s languages: A comparative handbook. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1-34.

Lexical borrowing: Concepts and issues. In: Haspelmath, Martin & Tadmor, Uri (eds.) Loanwords in the world’s languages: A comparative handbook. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 35-54. doi: 10.1515/9783110218442.35 [publisher] [zenodo]

The typological database  of the World Atlas of Language Structures. In: Everaert, Martin & Musgrave, Simon (eds.) The use of databases in cross-linguistic studies. (Empirical Approaches to Language Typology, 41.) Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 283-300.

Terminology of case. In: Malchukov, Andrej & Spencer, Andrew (eds.) The Oxford handbook of case.Oxford: Oxford University Press, 505-517.

An empirical test of the Agglutination Hypothesis.  In: Scalise, Sergio & Magni, Elisabetta & Bisetto, Antonietta  (eds.) Universals of language today. (Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, 76.) Dordrecht: Springer, 13-29. [zenodo]

Welche Fragen können wir mit herkömmlichen Daten beantworten? Zeitschrift für Sprachwissenschaft 28(1). 157-162.


[Martin Haspelmath & Matthew S. Dryer & David Gil & Bernard Comrie, eds.] The World Atlas of Language Structures Online. Munich: Max Planck Digital Library. (Subsequent editions in 2011, 2013)

Frequency vs. iconicity in explaining grammatical asymmetries. Cognitive Linguistics 19.1:1-33. [zenodo]

A frequentist explanation of some universals of reflexive marking. Linguistic Discovery  6.1: 40-63 [zenodo]

Creating economical morphosyntactic patterns in language change. In: Good, Jeff (ed.) 2008.Language universals and language change. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 185-214.

Loanword typology: Steps toward a systematic cross-linguistic study of lexical borrowability. In: Thomas Stolz, Dik Bakker & Rosa Salas Palomo (eds.) 2008. Aspects of language contact: New theoretical, methodological and empirical findings with special focus on Romancisation processesBerlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 43-62. [zenodo]

Parametric versus functional explanations of syntactic universals. In: Theresa Biberauer (ed.) 2008. The limits of syntactic variation. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 75-107. [zenodo]

Ditransitive constructions: Towards a new Role and Reference Grammar account? In: Van Valin, Jr., Robert D. (ed.) Investigations of the Syntax–Semantics–Pragmatics Interface. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 75–100.

[Martin Haspelmath & Susanne Michaelis] Leipzig fourmille de typologues: Genitive objects in comparison. In: Corbett, Greville G. & Noonan, Michael (eds.) Case and grammatical relations: Studies in honor of Bernard Comrie. (Typological Studies in Language, 81.) Amsterdam: Benjamins, 149-166.

Descriptive scales versus comparative scales. In: Marc Richards & Andrej L. Malchukov (eds.) Scales.(Linguistische Arbeitsberichte, 86.) Leipzig: Universität Leipzig, 39-53.


Further remarks on reciprocal constructions. In: Nedjalkov, Vladimir P. (ed.) Reciprocal constructions. 5 vols. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 2087-2115. [zenodo]

Coordination. In: Shopen, Timothy (ed.) Language typology and syntactic description, vol. II: Complex constructions. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1-51. [zenodo]

Pre-established categories don’t exist: Consequences for language description and typology. Linguistic Typology 11.1: 119-132 [zenodo]

Ditransitive alignment splits and inverse alignmentFunctions of Language 14.1: 79-102 (special issue on ditransitives, guest edited by Anna Siewierska) [zenodo]


Against markedness (and what to replace it with). Journal of Linguistics 42.1: 25-70 [zenodo]

[Martin Haspelmath & Sven Siegmund] Simulating the replication of some of Greenberg’s word order generalizations. Linguistic Typology 10.1: 74-82. [zenodo]


Argument marking in ditransitive alignment types. Linguistic Discovery 3.1: 1-21. DOI:10.1349/PS1.1537-0852.A.280 [zenodo]

[Martin Haspelmath & Matthew S. Dryer & David Gil & Bernard Comrie, eds.] The World Atlas of Language Structures. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 695 pp. (see also WALS Online)

[Bernard Comrie, Matthew S. Dryer, David Gil and Martin Haspelmath]. 2005. Introduction. In: Martin Haspelmath & Matthew S. Dryer & David Gil & Bernard Comrie (eds.) The World Atlas of Language Structures. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1-8. [zenodo]

Occurrence of nominal plurality. In: Martin Haspelmath & Matthew S. Dryer & David Gil & Bernard Comrie (eds.) The World Atlas of Language Structures. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 142-145. [WALS Online version]

Nominal and verbal conjunction. In: Martin Haspelmath & Matthew S. Dryer & David Gil & Bernard Comrie (eds.) The World Atlas of Language Structures. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 262-265. [WALS Online version]

Indefinite pronouns. In: Martin Haspelmath & Matthew S. Dryer & David Gil & Bernard Comrie (eds.)The World Atlas of Language Structures. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 190-193. [WALS Online version]

Ditransitive constructions: The verb ‘give’. In: Martin Haspelmath & Matthew S. Dryer & David Gil & Bernard Comrie (eds.) The World Atlas of Language Structures. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 426-429. [WALS Online version]

Negative indefinite pronouns and predicate negation. In: Martin Haspelmath & Matthew S. Dryer & David Gil & Bernard Comrie (eds.) The World Atlas of Language Structures. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 466-469. [WALS Online version]

‘Want’ complement subjects. In: Martin Haspelmath & Matthew S. Dryer & David Gil & Bernard Comrie (eds.) The World Atlas of Language Structures. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 502-509. [WALS Online version]


[Martin Haspelmath, ed.] Coordinating constructions. (Typological Studies in Language, 58.) Amsterdam: Benjamins, 576 pp.

Coordinating constructions: An overview. In: Haspelmath, Martin (ed.) Coordinating constructions. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 3-39. [zenodo]

Explaining the Ditransitive Person-Role Constraint: A usage-based account. Constructions 2/2004, 49 pp. [zenodo]

Does linguistic explanation presuppose linguistic description? Studies in Language 28.3: 554-579. DOI: 10.1075/sl.28.3.06has (special issue on linguistic evidence, guest edited by Martina Penke & Anette Rosenbach) [zenodo]

On directionality in language change with particular reference to grammaticalization. In: Olga Fischer, Muriel Norde and Harry Perridon (eds). Up and down the cline: The nature of grammaticalization. (Typological Studies in Language, 59.) Amsterdam: Benjamins, 17-44. [zenodo]

[Martin Haspelmath & Thomas Müller-Bardey] Valency change. In: Booij, Geert & Lehmann, Christian & Mugdan, Joachim (eds.) Morphology: A Handbook on Inflection and Word Formation. Vol. 2. (Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft) Berlin: de Gruyter, 1130-1145. [zenodo]

How hopeless is genealogical linguistics, and how advanced is areal linguistics? A review article of [Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y. & Dixon, R.M.W. (ed.) 2001. Areal diffusion and genetic inheritance. Oxford: Oxford University Press.] Studies in Language 28.1: 209-223. [zenodo]


The geometry of grammatical meaning: Semantic maps and cross-linguistic comparison. In: Tomasello, Michael (ed.) The new psychology of language, vol. 2. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 211-242. [zenodo]

[Michaelis, Susanne & Haspelmath, Martin] Ditransitive constructions: Creole languages in a cross-linguistic perspective. Creolica 2003-04-23 (, open-access online journal). [zenodo]


Understanding morphology. London: Arnold, 290 pp. [zenodo]

Warum ist Grammatik so, wie sie ist? In: Horst M. Müller (Hrsg.). Arbeitsbuch Linguistik. (UTB, 2169.) Paderborn: Schöningh, 210-219. [zenodo preprint]

Grammatikalisierung: Von der Performanz zur Kompetenz ohne angeborene Grammatik. In: Krämer, Sybille & König, Ekkehard (eds.) Gibt es eine Sprache hinter dem Sprechen? (Suhrkamp Taschenbuch Wissenschaft, 1592.) Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 262-286. [zenodo preprint]

On understanding word order asymmetries (Comments on John A. Hawkins, “Symmetries and asymmetries: their grammar, typology and parsing”). Theoretical Linguistics 28. 159-170. [zenodo]


[Martin Haspelmath & Ekkehard König & Wulf Oesterreicher & Wolfgang Raible] (eds.) Language typology and language universals: An international handbook. (Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft) Vol. 1-2. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1856 pp.

The European linguistic area: Standard Average European. In: Haspelmath, Martin & König, Ekkehard & Oesterreicher, Wulf & Raible, Wolfgang (eds.) Language typology and language universals. (Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft) Berlin: de Gruyter, 1492-1510. [zenodo]

Non-canonical marking of core arguments in European languages. In: Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y. & Dixon, R.M.W & Onishi, Masayuki (eds.) Non-canonical marking of subjects and objects. (Typological Studies in Language, 46.) Amsterdam: Benjamins, 53-83. [zenodo]

Word classes and parts of speech. In: Baltes, Paul B. & Smelser, Neil J. (eds.) International encyclopedia of the social and behavioral sciences. Amsterdam: Pergamon, 16538-16545. [zenodo]


Periphrasis. In: Booij, Geert & Lehmann, Christian & Mugdan, Joachim (eds.) Morphology: A handbook on inflection and word formation. Vol. 1. (Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft) Berlin: de Gruyter, 654-664. [zenodo]

[Martin Haspelmath & Sandro Caruana] Subject diffuseness in Maltese: On some subject properties of experiential verbs. Folia Linguistica 24(3-4). 245-265. [zenodo]

The relevance of extravagance: A reply to Bart Geurts. Linguistics 38. 789-798.

Why can’t we talk to each other? A review article of [Newmeyer, Frederick. 1998. Language form and language function. Cambridge: MIT Press.] Lingua 110(4). 235-55. [zenodo]


Why is grammaticalization irreversible? Linguistics 37(6). 1043-1068. [zenodo]

Some issues concerning optimality and diachronic adaptation (author’s response to open peer commentary). Zeitschrift für Sprachwissenschaft 18(2). 251-68.

Optimality and diachronic adaptation. Zeitschrift für Sprachwissenschaft 18.2: 180-205. [zenodo]

Converb. In: Brown, Keith & Miller, Jim (eds.) Concise encyclopedia of grammatical categories. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 110-115.

Long distance agreement in Godoberi (Daghestanian) complement clausesFolia Linguistica 33.2: 131-151.

External possession in a European areal perspective. In: Payne, Doris L. & Barshi, Immanuel (eds.) External possession. (Typological Studies in Language, 39.) Amsterdam: Benjamins, 109-135.

[Ekkehard König & Martin Haspelmath] Der europäische Sprachbund. In: Reiter, Norbert (ed.) Eurolinguistik. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 111-127.

Explaining article-possessor complementarity: Economic motivation in noun phrase syntaxLanguage 75.2: 227-243.

Are there principles of grammatical change? A review article of [Lightfoot, David. 1999. The development of language: Acquisition, change, and evolution. Oxford: Blackwell.] Journal of Linguistics 35: 579-595. [zenodo]


[Martin Haspelmath with Oda Buchholz] Equative and similative constructions in the languages of Europe. In: van der Auwera, Johan (ed.) Adverbial constructions in the languages of Europe. (Empirical Approaches to Language Typology/EUROTYP, 20-3.) Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 277-334. [zenodo]

[Martin Haspelmath & Ekkehard König] Concessive conditionals in the languages of Europe. In: van der Auwera, Johan (ed.) Adverbial constructions in the languages of Europe. (Empirical Approaches to Language Typology/EUROTYP, 20-3.) Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 563-640. [zenodo]

[Ekkehard König & Martin Haspelmath] Les constructions à possesseur externe dans les langues d’Europe. In: Feuillet, Jack (ed.), Actance et valence dans les langues de l’Europe. (Empirical Approaches to Language Typology/EUROTYP, 20-2.) Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 525-606. [zenodo]

Does grammaticalization need reanalysis? Studies in Language 22.2:49-85.

How young is Standard Average European? Language Sciences 20.3: 271-87. [zenodo]

The semantic development of old presents: New futures and subjunctives without grammaticalization. Diachronica 15.1: 29-62. [zenodo]


1997. Indefinite pronouns. (Oxford Studies in Typology and Linguistic Theory) Oxford: Oxford University Press, 364 pp. [OA] [OUP] [zenodo ms.] [dataset]

1997. From space to time: Temporal adverbials in the world’s languages. (Lincom Studies in Theoretical Linguistics, 3.) Munich & Newcastle: Lincom Europa, 181 pp. [zenodo]

1997. Kontrolle und Subjektausdruck bei Infinitiven und Konverben. In: Maas, Utz (ed.) Infinitive. (Publikationsreihe der Forschungsstelle für Artikulationsprozesse, 2.) Osnabrück: Secolo, 58-79.


1996. Complement clauses. In: Kibrik, Alexandr E. (ed.) Godoberi. (Lincom Studies in Caucasian Linguistics, 2.) Munich: Lincom Europa, 175-197. [zenodo]

1996. [Haspelmath, Martin & Caruana, Josephine.] Indefinite pronouns in Maltese. Rivista di Linguistica 8.1: 213-227. [OA] [zenodo]

1996. Word-class-changing inflection and morphological theory. In: Geert Booij & Jaap van Marle (eds.), Yearbook of morphology 1995, 43-66. Dordrecht: Kluwer. [zenodo]


1995. Referential distinctions in indefinite pronouns: A typological perspective. In: Geiger, Richard A. (ed.) Reference in multidisciplinary perspective: Philosophical object, cognitive subject, intersubjective process, 626-647. Hildesheim: Olms. [zenodo]

1995. Diachronic sources of ‘all’ and ‘every’. In: Bach, Emmon & Jelinek, Eloise & Kratzer, Angelika & Partee, Barbara (eds.) Quantification in natural languages, 363-382 (Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy, 54.) Dordrecht: Kluwer. [zenodo]

1995. Contextual and specialized converbs in Lezgian (Nakho-Daghestanian). In: M. Haspelmath & E. König (eds.) Converbs in cross-linguistic perspective, 415-440. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ( [zenodo]

1995. The converb as a cross-linguistically valid category. In: Martin Haspelmath & Ekkehard König (eds.) Converbs in cross-linguistic perspective, 1-55. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ( [zenodo]

1995. The growth of affixes in morphological reanalysis. In: Geert Booij & Jaap van Marle (eds.), Yearbook of morphology 1994, 1-29. Dordrecht: Kluwer. [zenodo]

1995. [Martin Haspelmath & Ekkehard König] (eds.) Converbs in cross-linguistic perspective: Structure and meaning of adverbial verb forms – adverbial participles, gerunds. (Empirical Approaches to Language Typology, 13.) Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 565 pp. [commercial e-book]


1994. Passive participles across languages. In: Fox, Barbara & Hopper, Paul J. (eds.) Voice: Form and function. (Typological Studies in Language, 27.) Amsterdam: Benjamins, 151-177. ( [zenodo]

1994. The tense system of Lezgian. In: Thieroff, Rolf & Ballweg, Joachim (eds.) Tense systems in European languages, 267-277. (Linguistische Arbeiten, 308.) Tübingen: Niemeyer. [zenodo]

1994. Implicational universals in the distribution of indefinite pronouns. Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung 47(3). 156-181. ( [zenodo]

1994. Functional categories, X-bar-theory, and grammaticalization theory. Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung 47(1). 3-15. ( [zenodo]


1993. More on the typology of inchoative/causative verb alternations. In: Comrie, Bernard & Polinsky, Maria (eds.) Causatives and transitivity, 87-120. (Studies in Language Companion Series, 23.) Amsterdam: Benjamins. ( [zenodo]

1993. The diachronic externalization of inflection. Linguistics 31(2). 279-309. ( [zenodo]

1993. A grammar of Lezgian. (Mouton Grammar Library, 9.) Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 567 pp. [commercial e-book]


1992. From resultative to perfect in Ancient Greek. In: Iturrioz Leza, José Luis (ed.) Nuevos estudios sobre construcciones resultativos. (= Función 11-12) Universidad de Guadalajara: Centro de Investigación de Lenguas Indígenas, 187-224. [zenodo]

1992. Grammaticization theory and heads in morphology. In: Aronoff, Mark (ed.) Morphology now. Albany: State University of New York Press, 69-82; 194-198. [zenodo]


1991. Zur Grammatikalisierung von Indefinitpronomina. In: Boretzky, Norbert & Enninger, Werner & Jeßing, Benedikt & Stolz, Thomas (eds.) Sprachwandel und seine Prinzipien. Beiträge zum 8. Bochum-Essener Kolloquium vom 19.10. – 21.10. 1990 an der Ruhruniversität Bochum. (Bochum-Essener Beiträge zur Sprachwandelforschung, 14.) Bochum: Universitätsverlag Brockmeyer, 103-125. [zenodo]

1991. On the question of deep ergativity: The evidence from LezgianPapiere zur Linguistik 44/45.1-2: 5-27. [zenodo]


1990. The grammaticization of passive morphologyStudies in Language 14.1: 25-71. [zenodo]


1989. Schemas in Hausa plural formation: Product-orientation and motivation vs. source-orientation and generationBuffalo Working Papers in Linguistics 89.01: 32-74. [zenodo]

1989. From purposive to infinitive: A universal path of grammaticization. Folia Linguistica Historica 10.1-2: 287-310. [zenodo]


1987. Transitivity alternations of the anticausative type(Arbeitspapiere, N.F., Nr. 4) Cologne: Institut für Sprachwissenschaft der Universität zu Köln. [zenodo]

1987. Verbal noun or verbal adjective? The case of the Latin gerundive and gerund. (Arbeitspapiere, N.F., Nr. 3) Cologne: Institut für Sprachwissenschaft der Universität zu Köln. [zenodo]


1989a. Rezension von: [Comrie, Bernard (ed.) 1987. The world’s major languages. London & Sydney: Croom Helm.] Zeitschrift für Sprachwissenschaft 8. 1: 159-162. [zenodo]

1989b. Review of:  [Lehmann, Winfred P. (ed.) 1986. Language typology 1985. Papers from the Linguistic Typology Symposium, Moscow, 9-13 December 1985. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.] Studies in Language 13, 2:488-495.

1990. Book Notice of: [Raible, Wolfgang (ed.) 1989. Romanistik, Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung. Beiträge zum Freiburger Romanistentag 1987.] Language 66,2: 425.

1991a. Review of: [Kefer, Michel & van der Auwera, Johan (eds.) 1989. Universals of Language. (Belgian Journal of Linguistics; 4) Brussels: Éditions de l’Université de Bruxelles.] Lingua 85.4: 357-61.

1991b. Review of: [Xrakovskij, V.S. (ed.). Tipologija iterativnyx konstrukcij. Leningrad : Nauka. 1989. 311 pp. (“Typology of iterative constructions”)] Studies in Language 15.2

1992a. Book Notice of: [Ibragimov, Garun X. 1990. Caxurskij jazyk. Moskva: Nauka.] Language 68.2: 432-433.

1992b. Review of: [Nedjalkov, Vladimir P. (ed.) 1988. Typology of resultative constructions. (Typological Studies in Language; 12) Amsterdam: John Benjamins.] Studies in Language 16.1: 240-248.

1992c. Review of: [Traugott, Elizabeth Closs & Heine, Bernd (eds.) 1991. Approaches to grammaticalization. Vol. I-II. (Typological Studies in Language, 19.) Amsterdam: Benjamins.] Lingua88.3/4: 340-345. [zenodo]

1993a. Review of: [Bhat, D.N.S. 1991. Grammatical relations: The evidence against their necessity and universality. London: Routledge] Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung 46.2: 146-48.

1993b. Review of: [Hengeveld, Kees. 1992. Non-verbal predication: theory, typology, diachrony. (Functional Grammar Series, 15.) Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.] Studia Linguistica 47.1: 95-99.

1993c. Review of: [Plank, Frans (ed.) 1991. Paradigms: The economy of inflection. (Empirical Approaches to Language Typology, 9.) Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.] Linguistics 31.3: 566-569.

1993d. Review of: [Xrakovskij, Viktor S. (ed.) 1992. Tipologija imperativnyx konstrukcij. Sankt-Peterburg: Nauka.] Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung 46.4: 330-333.

1993e. Book Notice of: [Noonan, Michael. 1992. A grammar of Lango. (Mouton grammar library, 7.) Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.] Language 69.4: 868-869.

1993f. Book Notice of: [Hewitt, George (ed.) 1992. Caucasian perspectives. Unterschleissheim: LINCOM EUROPA.] Language 69.4: 860-861.

1993g. Review of: [Nichols, Johanna. 1992. Linguistic diversity in space and time. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.] Journal of Linguistics 29.2: 494-500.

1994a. Review of: [ Mosel, Ulrike & Hovdhaugen, Even. 1992. Samoan reference grammar. Oslo: Scandinavian University Press.] Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung 47.2:128-131.

1994b. Review of: [Klaiman, M.H. 1991. Grammatical voice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.]Language 70.1: 176-178.

1994c. Review of: [Strom, Clay. 1992. Retuarã syntax: Studies in the languages of Colombia 3. (SIL Publications in Linguistics, 112.) Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.] Languages of the World 8: 67-68.

1995a. Review of: [Ouhalla, Jamal. 1991. Functional categories and parametric variation. London: Routledge.] Word 46.1: 100-107.

1995b. Book Notice of: [Stolz, Thomas. 1992. Sekundäre Flexionsbildung: Eine Polemik zur Zielgerichtetheit im Sprachwandel. Bochum : Brockmeyer.] Yearbook of Morphology 1994, 299-301.

1995c. Review of: [Corbett, Greville G. & Fraser, Norman & McGlashan, Scott (eds.) 1993. Heads in grammatical theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.] Nordic Journal of Linguistics 18.1: 98-104.

1995d. Review of: [Kemmer, Suzanne. 1993. The middle voice. (Typological Studies in Language, 23.) Amsterdam: Benjamins.] Language 71.2: 372-74.

1995e. Review of: [Van Valin, Robert D. (ed.) 1993. Advances in Role and Reference Grammar. (CILT, 82.) Amsterdam: Benjamins] Lingua 97.4: 28797.4: 287-292.

1996a. Review of: [Rieks Smeets (ed.) 1994. The indigenous languages of the Caucasus. Vol. 4: The North East Caucasian languages. Part 2. Delmar, N.Y.: Caravan.] Language 72.1: 126-129.

1996b. Review of: [Shibatani, Masayoshi & Bynon, Theodora (eds.) 1995. Approaches to language typology. Oxford: Clarendon Press.] Journal of Linguistics 32.2: 513-17.

1996c. Book Notice of: [Lazard, Gilbert. 1994. L’actance. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.]Studies in Language 20.3: 697-99.

1997a. Review of: [Plank, Frans (ed.) 1995. Double case: Agreement by Suffixaufnahme. New York: Oxford University Press] Linguistics 35.2: 417-421.

1997b. Book Notice of: [Janda, Laura. 1996. Back from the brink: A study of how relic forms in languages serve as source material for analogical extension. Munich & Newcastle: Lincom Europa]. In:Yearbook of Morphology 1996.

1997c. Book Notice of: [Languages of the World/Materials. Munich & Newcastle: Lincom Europa, 1995: Even, by Andrei L. Malchukov (12.); Modern Eastern Armenian, by Natalia Kozintseva (22.); Dogon, by Vladimir Plungian (64.); Bare, by Alexandra Aikhenvald (100.); Romanes (Sinte), by Daniel Holzinger (105.)]. Language 73.2: 445-46.

1997d. Review of: [Van Belle, William & Van Langendonck, Willy (eds.) 1996. The dative. Vol. 1: Descriptive studies. (Case and Grammatical Relations across Languages, 2.) Amsterdam: Benjamins].Language  73.4: 854-56.

1998a. Review of: [Harris, Alice C. & Campbell, Lyle. 1995. Historical syntax in cross-linguistic perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press]. Linguistic Typology 2.1:131-139.

1998b. Review of: [ Dixon, R.M.W. 1997. The rise and fall of languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.] Linguistics 36.5:1001-1006.

1998c. Review of: [Chappell, Hilary & McGregor, William (eds.) The grammar of inalienability: A typological perspective on body part terms and the part-whole relation. Berlin, Mouton de Gruyter].Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung 51.4: 366-370.

1998d. Review of: [Lang, Ewald & Zifonun, Gisela (eds.) 1996. Deutsch – typologisch (Institut für deutsche Sprache, Jahrbuch 1995.) Berlin: de Gruyter]. Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics 2.2 183-189.

1999a. Review of: [Kulikov, Leonid & Vater, Heinz (eds.) 1998. Typology of verbal categories: Papers presented to Vladimir Nedjalkov on the occasion of his 70th birthday. (Linguistische Arbeiten, 382.) Tübingen: Niemeyer. ] Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung 52.1: 99-102.

1999b. Review of: [Ramat, Paolo & Roma, Elisa (eds.) 1998. Sintassi storica: Atti del XXX Congresso Internazionale della Società Italiana di Linguistica. Roma: Bulzoni].  Diachronica  16.1: 190-96.

1999c. Review of: [Lazard, Gilbert (ed.) 1997. La typologie actancielle. Thematic issue of Studi Italiani di Linguistica Teorica e Applicata 26.2. Pisa: Pacini] Linguistic Typology 3.3: 361-65.

2000a. Review of: [Ray  Fabri, Albert Ortmann, and Teresa Parodi (eds.) 1998. Models of inflection. (Linguistische Arbeiten, 388.) Tübingen: Niemeyer.] Linguistics 38.4: 821-26.

2000b. Book Notice of: [Schuh, Russell G. 1998. A grammar of Miya. ( University of California Publications in Linguistics, 130.) Berkeley: University of California Press]. Language 76.3: 748.

2000c. Review of: [Kirby, Simon. 1999. Function, selection, and innateness: the emergence of language universals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.] Linguistic Typology 4.1: 163-68.

2000d. Book Notice of: [Boeder, Winfried & Schroeder, Christoph & Wagner, Karl Heinz & Wildgen, Wolfgang. 1998. Sprache in Raum und Zeit: In memoriam Johannes Bechert. Band 1: Johannes Bechert: Kleine Schriften. Band 2: Beiträge zur empirischen Sprachwissenschaft. Tübingen: Narr.]Studies in Language 24.3: 747-51.

2003. Book Notice of: [Sinha, Jasmin. 2000. Der neuostaramäische Dialekt von Bespen (Provinz Mardin, Südosttürkei): Eine grammatische Darstellung. Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz.] Studies in Language27.3:714-5.

2006. Review of: [Preferred Argument Structure: Grammar as architecture for function. Ed. by JOHN W. DU BOIS, LORRAINE E. KUMPF, and WILLIAM J. ASHBY. (Studies in discourse and grammar, 14.) Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2003.] Language 82.4:908-912.

2008. Review of: [Person. By Anna Siewierska. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.]Language 84.1: 206-209.